4 axis CNC and 5 axis CNC processing in product manufacturing

There are a lot of understanding of CNC processing shafts in product manufacturing related to CNC machining. This is because of their importance and most modern CNC machines often use the facts of 4 axis CNC and 5 axis CNC machining operations.

In this article, you will learn about 4 axis and 5 axis CNC processing. This will include introducing basic principles, differences, and how to choose one in the processing project?

What is 4 axis CNC processing?

Based on the limitations of the above 3 axis, 4 axis and 5 axis CNC become more popular. 4 axis CNC machining process includes the same mechanism. However, from its name, there is an additional axis.

In a 4 axis controlled machine, the spindle moves along three axes: up and down, lateral side, front and rear, and the workpiece remains stationary on the robot. 4 axis CNC processes are further rotated along the X axis, also known as a axis. This additional shaft allows 4 axis CNC processes to work in a case involving holes or tailoring.

Typically, the 4 axis CNC processing is preferably 3 axis CNC processing because it accelerates and improves the accuracy of the production process.

What is 5 axis CNC processing?

The 5 axis CNC machining process is also very similar to the 3-axis CNC processing process. However, it is equipped with some very important features that provide these two additional axes and greater cutting flexibility.

On the 5 axis CNC machining, the spindle and the cutting tool move along the three axis. However, the X-axis (called a axis), the Y-axis (called B shaft) and the Z axis (referred to as a C axis) other rotation. The 5-axis machine can utilize any two of these rotating shafts, depending on their configuration.

Based on this feature, 5 axis CNC processing is used. It can perform milling, turning, etc., so you only need a machine to handle several parts.

The 3 + 2 axis processing process is a subtype of a 5 axis process, which is the intermediate ground between the 3 axes and 5 axes according to its name. Despite this, it is a fast and efficient 5 axis process. It is sometimes referred to as position 5 axis processing.

With 3 + 2-axis machining, the angle of the cutting tool does not change as the spindle or the table is rotated around the two extra axes. As a result, the cutting tool is not always perpendicular to the part and does not always create perfect cutting.

However, there is a 3 + 2 axis machining form called an index 3 + 2 shaft machining. In this form, the angle of the cutting tool can be manually adjusted between the cutout.

5-axis CNC processing

In the 5-axis machining, when the cutting tool always remains perpendicular to the component, we have a continuous or simultaneous 5-axis machining. This process can provide excellent surface finish and allow an area where it is difficult to reach. However, it is slower than 3 + 2 shaft.

Difference between 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining

The main difference between the two is their extra axis, which further leads to other subtle differences.

Axis difference

4 axis CNC processes have additional shafts, A shafts, and two additional additional additional axis CNC machining, which may be shaft, B shaft, or C-axis, depending on the configuration.

Rotate rotation

4 axis CNC machining allows rotation on the shaft, while the 5-axis allows two two axes (A shaft, B shaft, and C-axis).


The 5-axis CNC processing has a more much higher axis than the 4-axis CNC. Not only additional, but also there is no localization. The localization in this context means that the 4-axis CNC machining additional axis is always on the X-axis. Although the 5-axis CNC machining can be two of the XYZ axis. This additional and no symbolic properties are additional edges of the 5-axis CNC machining in flexibility in flexibility.


The characteristics and functions of the 5-axis CNC processes make it more expensive than the 4-axis number.

Regardless of its specific configuration, all 4 shafts and 5-axis machines can move their cutting tools in more ways and from more angles than the 3-axis machine. This allows for more complex processing operations and improvements, and eliminates the need for multiple settings.

Advantages of using 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining

4 shafts and 5 axis CNC machining provide a number of advantages, you can decide the right benefits from it. This includes increasing accuracy, reduced setting time and more complex parts.

Other specific advantages depends on the machine configuration or whether there is a 3 + 2 axis or a continuous 5 axis.

In general, 3 + 2 axis processing provides advantages, for example:

  • Quick processing.
  • Easy to set up.
  • Solden in the tool interference.

Advantages of continuous 5-axis machining:

  • Excellent surface finish.
  • Better parts access.
  • Less tool wear.

4 axis and 5 axis CNC processing

In many cases related to product manufacturing, the 4-axis and 5-axis CNC machining is important in many cases. Based on what you need, they can be used to create a deep cavity mold, create a complex 3D shape, and processing on the inclined surface of the part without compromise.

In two, 5 axis CNC processing can be used in a wide variety of parts. For example, in the production of components such as impeller and turbine blades, it becomes particularly dominated, which has contour surfaces that are not suitable for 3-axis machining.

How to choose between 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining

Choose a 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining project to learn from one or two things. Three important measures that must be considered when choosing between the two are:

  • Your budget

In the budgetary scale, the 5 axis is more expensive than the 4-axis, more expensive than the 3 axis. The cause is from 3 to 4 to 5, and the function and function increases.

  • Your requirements

Depending on the part, you need to get the right one between the 4-axis and 5 axis CNC machining. For complex parts, you should choose 5 axis CNC processing. However, for items aimed at generating small and simple components, 3 shafts and 4 shafts are ideal.

  • Operation process

The higher, the higher the axis number, it will run the complexity. In the case of ensuring a simple operation, the 3-axis is the simplest, followed by 4 axis CNC processing.

In conclusion

There are many differences between the 4-axis and 5-axis CNC machining is a step in manufacturing a suitable product. This is because most CNC machines utilize 3 axIs, 4 axis and 5 axis CNC processing processes. Therefore, this paper discusses the difference in three-axis and 5-axis CNC processing of three main concerns.


What is the XYZ axis number control?

The XYZ axis depicts the direction of movement of the CNC machine. The X-axis depicts the left and right movements. The Y axis depicts the forward and backward movement, and the Z axis depicts up and down movements. Based on the 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining work, a part of the axis rotates effect. For 4 axis CNC machining, the rotation effect is seen on the X-axis, and the rotation effect is seen in the two axes for the 5-axis CNC machining.

What is 6 axis CNC?

There is also a 6 axis CNC machining process. However, it is designed for batch processing. When used, the 6 axis CNC machining is efficient, resulting in a huge cut in production.

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