This is a CNC Router Machine purchase guide, if you are interested, you can click to view.
What is a 5 axis CNC Router?
The 5 axis CNC Router machine, also known as the 5 axis CNC machining center, is equipped with a 3D CNC system. It is designed as a 5 axis CNC processing solution with high cost-effectiveness. It refers to the ability of the machine to move tools or parts on five different axes to achieve complex surface processing.
The basic processing is carried out on three axes of X, Y, and Z, but the 5 axis CNC processing tool can rotate the additional two axes A and B forward. These additional axes can shorten the processing time because they can cut five edges of the material at the same time. This provides a multi-directional solution for cutting tools. However, because of the longer X-axis of the 5 axis machine tool, the stability and accuracy are low. This may require more attention than the 3 axis or 4 axis CNC router machine.
The 5 axis CNC machine tool is also known as the 5 axis CNC milling machine, 5 axis CNC machining center, 5 axis CNC carving machine, or the multi-axis machining center.
How does the 5 axis CNC Router work?
First of all, let’s learn some knowledge about axes.
X-axis: The moving path is from front to rear.
Y-axis: The moving path is from left to right.
Z-axis: The moving path is up and down.
A and B axes correspond to the axis of rotation of X, Y, and Z axes. (The three core axes are X, Y, Z, two additional rotating axes, the A axis revolving around the X-axis, and the B axis rotating around the Y-axis.)
Five-axis CNC router machine tool movement path: X-Y-Z-A-B, X-Y-Z-A-C, X-Y-Z-B-C(spindle can rotate 180 degrees).
The 5 axis CNC router machine moves parts or cutting tools on five different axes through CNC programming. The 3 axis CNC machine tool moves the parts along the X-axis and the Y-axis in two directions, and the bits move along the Z-axis. The five-axis CNC machine can operate two additional rotating axes (A-axis and B axis) at the same time, which will help the bits to approach the parts from all directions to achieve the purpose of all-around processing.
How is a 5 axis CNC Router used?
The 5 axis CNC Router machine is designed to provide high-speed and high-quality processing for various materials. Include but not limited to wood, plastic, nonferrous metals, and other composite materials, 5 axis technology provides various new applications, including:
- Trimming of thermoformed plastics, molded plastic, and composite parts:
The flexibility of the 5 axis CNC router machine enables it to provide high-quality finishing and trimming functions on many plastic products.
- Deep cavity mold making:
On the three-axis CNC router machine, deep cavity mold manufacturing requires you to use longer tools to achieve sufficient depth. With longer tools, the user has to cut down the cutting speed to prevent breakage. By adding additional motion to the 5 axis CNC machining, shorter tools can be used and higher cutting speed can be achieved.
- Molded plywood chairs and decorative furniture parts:
5 axis routing technology can make the unique molding for all kinds of materials, enabling you to turn the creative and dynamic design into reality.
- Fine 3D carving:
The increase in cutting tool motion on the 5 axis CNC router machine enables it to carve complex designs into a piece of material. It enables you to capture the details of the design in the work to be done.
Thermoforming industry: finishing and trimming of thermoformed plastics and molds.
Instrument industry: 3D surface carving and shape cutting of large instruments;
Furniture industry: processing of all kinds of cabinets, cabinet doors, chairs and tables, and the overall customization of kitchen and bathroom.
Decoration industry: PCB, PVC, MDF, stone, plexiglass, copper and aluminum and other soft metal processing;
Precision Industry: cutting large 3D(three-dimensional) parts in the automotive, aerospace and ship industries;
Mold industry: mold, foam mold, car models, train models, aviation models, ship models, paraffin mold, and other large non-metal molds.
What’s the worktable size of the 5 axis CNC Router?
4×4, 4×6, 4×8, 6×9, 5×10, 6×12, 10*13, 10*16 in feet;
48×48, 48×72, 48×96, 72×108, 60×120, 72×144, 120×156, 120×190 in inch;
1212, 1220, 1325, 2030, 2040, 3040 and 3050 in milometer.
Of course, the worktable size can be customized as your requirements.
How to choose a suitable 5 axis CNC Router?
It is mainly based on material and material size: the general materials are wood, foam, and plastic.
- If the width of processing material is less than 2 meters, screw model and worktable moving is available;
- If the width of processing material is bigger than 3 meters, it needs to equipped with rack gear and split body type.
How to maintain a 5 axis CNC Router?
- Clean up all the debris on the machine (each part is blown by compressed air);
- Check the following:
The bit is clean;
Internal taper of the spindle motor.
- Check the pneumatic oil level in the regulator;
- The water in the regulator or separator is emptied;
- Check the blower prefilter and main filter, and then clean according to need;
- Lubricate all guide screws and linear guides.
- Upload all machine data (machine parameters and program files) through RS232 or Ethernet;
- Copy machine data to CD or USB drive and store it in a secure location;
- Check all the following:
Pneumatic connection – listen for leaks and check if the shell has excess oil;
Electrical enclosure – check cleanliness (machine power should be turned off);
Belt and pulley components – check tightness and belt integrity;
Clean and lubricate fourth and fifth axle gear assemblies.
Half a year maintenance:
- Thoroughly clean all guide screws and ball nut components by using WD40 to wash ball nuts;
- Clean the dry components and perform erroneous calibration on all axes;
- Check the following:
All wiring in the machine;
Brush in DC brush servo motor;
HSD motor should not be refueling in the regulator of the CNC machine. For these machines, pneumatic oil is directly applied to the cylinder shaft;
The machine needs 10 parts of pneumatic oil to lubricate the cylinder, pneumatic drill and mechanical movement components of the Colombo spindle motor;
You can use a rust inhibitor to clean the tool carrier and spindle motor shaft.
5 axis CNC Router operation guide.
- When the worktable allowance is larger, use the five-axis machining center to cut the allowance.
- The most important tool for machining is the first bits. If we are alert to operation and verification, we can know whether the bits length compensation, tool diameter compensation, program, rotate speed and so on are the same, so as to avoid damaging the workpiece, cutter, and machine tool.
- Follow the following methods:
- The height of the first point is 100mm;
- Set”fast travel” to 25%,and “feed” to 0%;
- When the tool is near (about 10mm) machining surface, the machine will be suspended;
- To review the accuracy of the residual stroke and program;
- Once the machines switched on again, put one hand on the pause button, ready to stop at any time, and the other hand controls the feed speed;
- When the tool is very near the workpiece surface, it can stagnate again. It is necessary to verify the residual stroke of the Z-axis;
- The machined cutting is smooth and stable, then the control is returned to normal condition.
- After the output program title, use the pen to copy the title of the program on the screen, then check with the order list. When closing the program, pay attention to the size of the cutter diameter in the order of the review and whether the order is consistent with the order, and fill in the name and size of the file immediately in the signing order on the order sheet, preventing the advance or prior completion.
- The NC mechanic shall not be allowed to work when the workpiece is rough. In case of changing the bits or helping to adjust the rest of the machine tool, it is necessary to invite other NC members to inspect the.6. when working in the five-axis machining center. The NC mechanic should pay special attention to the opening of the machine and avoid the tool hitting the area.
- Sequential shearing. If there is a break in the processing sequence and a long time from the beginning to the end, the team leader and the programmer should be told to correct the order and cut the part.
- The order is abnormal. If there are different situations in sequence and no control, we can lift height to inspect its appearance, then choose the next step.
- Processing the speed and speed provided by the intermediate programmers. The NC technicians can adjust the situation according to the circumstances. However, special attention should be paid to the speed of the small pieces of copper when they are underground.
- In the process of workpiece processing, the NC mechanic should check with the parts drawing to see if there is any difference. Once the invention is not identical, it is necessary to stop immediately and tell the team to be a person to check if there is any mistake.
- When we go beyond 200mm long tool processing, we must pay attention to the allowance and depth of feed, speed, and so on, so as to avoid the bits and the speed of the corner position should be controlled.
- On the order sheet, the operator must carefully take charge of detecting the diameter of the tool. At the same time, the diameter of the test shall be recorded. If the diameter of the tool is recorded, the operator should immediately respond to the group or replace the bits.
- When the machine tool is active or free, the operator should understand the remaining processing programming situation at the duty station, prepare and grind the appropriate tools to the next processing spare parts, so as not to stop the attack.
- The technical mistakes in the five-axis machining center are the main causes of the waste time: the wrong application of unsuitable tools, the failure to control the machining process, the waste of time in machining or non-computer processing, improper processing conditions (too slow speed, empty bits, too dense its paths, too slow feed, etc.).
- In the process of workpiece processing, we must pay attention to the wear condition of the tool. We should change the tool grain or cutter appropriately. After changing the cutter grain, we should pay attention to whether the processing boundary is identical.
The wearing parts of a 5 axis CNC Router.
Including but not limited in the vacuum tube, vacuum brush, cylinder connector, bits, and so on.
iGOLDENCNC provides all kinds of CNC router parts at the same time.