How 4 axis and 5 axis CNC machining center produce complex parts

CNC processing has changed its manufacturing. Although the milling machine-uses a rotary cutting machine, in the 19th century, there has been a rotating cutting machine, from the 19th century since the 19th century, the emergence of CNC (computer number control) technology in the 19th century has made processes Faster, higher and accurate.

Today’s CNC machine, using computer control tools and / or table movement, is a highly advanced device to enable manufacturers to create complex components with extremely low tolerances.

However, all different CNC processing options there is hard to know where to start. Different components require different processing processes, depending on their shape, size, quantity, and ultimate goal, so selecting the correct CNC process is very small.

One of the largest issues of companies using CNC machines involve the number of axes provided by the machine. 3 axes, 4 axes and 5 axis CNC machining center are often used, but how much is the actual difference between them? More importantly, should you use your part?

What is the CNC machine “axis”?

Multiple “axis” that makes your head around machine can be confusing – and have a full reason.

This concept is confusing, because of intuition, it seems that the three axes can cover all possible shapes. By moving the cutter, the machine should be able to cut the workpiece on its surface along the X, Y and Z axis (left, above, up and down). The machine operator can also allow cutting tools to be cut to the workpiece on any side of the workpiece by manually re-directioning the workpiece on the table (creating a new “setting”).

However, although many more control machines use only three axes, for many projects, the type of three-axis CNC processing can be sufficient, but there are other shafts can also be utilized.

These additional shafts are the results of rotation around the rotation of one or two X, Y, and Z axes, taking into account more than just positions, but also orientation. In fact, these shafts can be utilized by rotating the cutting tool or tilting the workpiece.

Why is the 4-axis and 5 axis CNC machining center useful?

CNC machine with these extra shafts has many advantages. Since they can cut workpieces from different angles, the 4-axis and 5 axis CNC machining center can complete the part within a shorter time range and require multiple settings. This has an incorrect alignment knocking benefit – there is risky every time you have to reordforward new settings.

Another related benefit of multi-axis processing is how it eliminates the need for complex clamps, which typically requires the components on the 3-axis machine.

However, from the customer’s perspective, the maximum advantage of 4 axes and 5 axis CNC machining center processing is how it produces extremely complex shapes to very high standards. Through additional axes, the machine can move new curves and angles with greater coverage and flexibility. This ultimately leads to a variety of exception geometries.

In addition, by bringing the machine to orient the tool in any angle, the job can be programmed to cut the workpiece in the most effective manner, which will provide the best cutting speed and the chip removal, thereby increasing the quality finished product portion. .

This arrangement is also ideal for producing contour surfaces. With a 3-axis machine, a plurality of small cuts are required, which may take a long time to perform, and rarely leave a perfect surface. However, through a multi-shaft machine, gradually rotating – the fourth or fifth axis adjustment can produce a near perfect contour, smooth completion.

5 axis CNC machining center or 3 + 2?: Find a short guide

When you talk about a cutting tool, one of the main considerations you must make is to choose how many axes are suitable for your workflow. You can satisfy a 3-axis system to achieve relatively simple work, but for more complex parts, you may need to upgrade. This is where the 5-axis and 3 + 2 axis machine enters.

Although 5 axis processing has some normal collection rates, 3 + 2 also has its own specific location and provide some unique advantages. 3 + 2 or 5 axis index (or any one in its various alternative titles) is a form of mechanical processing, and there is a popular company in a company that is poor in the mold store and printing requirements.

So let’s take a closer look:

Workflow difference

The core difference between the two technologies hits vertical and continuous and index processing. This means that the 3 + 2 processing or 5 axis “index” processing does not hold the cutting tool and the workpiece through all rotating shafts. In contrast to this process, simultaneous or true 5-axis machining uses three linear axes (X, Y and Z) and two rotating shafts (A and B) of the machine, resulting in more complex contour surface processing.

In terms of code, 3 + 2 processing usually uses fewer complex G code. Many 5 axis CNC machining center software providers include 3 + 2 processing regulations. However, 3 + 2 machining simplifies tool movement because it is effective to be a three-axis machine, no “distortion and rotation” of the spindle head to manipulate the cutting tool.

Users may want to keep in mind that they should evaluate CAM software collision avoidance and program simulation. Despite this, one of 3 + 2 has been able to achieve such popular reasons is a widely available program utility that has been planted, so it should not be so much obstacles.


In common advantages, due to the use of shorter tools, they can cause dimensional stability due to fewer settings and improved surface treatments. The 3 + 2 process uses the same 3-axis control for milling, but the machining table can be repositioned and rotated in two additional directions. As a result, it is possible to reduce the processing of the processing and cutting the total cost of the total cost can be reduced from all sides. The lower cycle time also reduces the cost of two technologies.

Since anyone can guess, all five of the five aspects of using a single setting require less preparation, and use shorter delivery time in a shorter delivery time in the event of better accuracy. Time and eliminate the need to transfer the object from one device to another.

Specific application

5 axis processing can provide a more complex final product as a whole, but there is a certain way 3 + 2 axis out. 3 + 2 axis processing is suitable for parts, no extreme contour control, such as clamp, clamp, housing, and other such components. If you need to use an extremely fine function design, the real 5 axis CNC machining center may be the most suitable for you.

5 axis CNC machining center processing is particularly useful for automotive, aerospace or medical components for automotive, aerospace or medical components. Simply put, more stringent tolerances and more complex geometry more suitable for 5-axis machining. However, this is not the end of the discussion. As mentioned above, 3 + 2 shaft processing can be made earlier, which makes it more ideal.

On the one hand, it is cheap than the 5 axis CNC machining center. Common applications for 3 + 2 operations include roughing and other aggressive high-speed machining techniques. The shorter cutter length also causes the chamber and the steep wall under which the capacity involving curves or angular tubular shapes and other workpiece applications. Compared to traditional 3-axis machining, 3 + 2 machining utilizes shorter rigid cutting tools, which can be angled towards the work surface to faster feed and speed. . It also embodies a large number of 5 axis CNC machining center advantages without a large speed price tag, although there is already a 5-axis machine in terms of prices in the past few years.

In some cases, both techniques can be used in series. For example, 3 + 2 processing can be applied for roughing operations, followed up, and used to simultaneously perform five-axis machining that operates. Since the 3 + 2 permissible tool length is short, it has given a more aggressive high-speed machining technology, and thus. The 3 + 2-axis machine can also effectively perform a rest processing in a large number of instances.

At the same time, 3 + 2 systems and settings should not be considered a substitute for five-axis machining. There must be a certain geometry, absolutely requires a 5 axis CNC machining center system, for example, a flattettut mill for generating a sharp corner in the cavity. AS 3 + 2 processing typically uses a spherical nut similar to 3-axis machining, which can be downgraded. Various other cutting modes with conical, lollipop or other special geometric shaped cutting tools may require full five-axis movement to achieve accurate results.

5 axes and 3 + 2 shafts have a place in manufacturing. This is just a problem that best suits your workflow, investment level, and final product.

Which process is suitable for me?

Since the 4-axis and 5 axis CNC machining center can produce a highly complex part, they are usually favored by customers in the high budget, high betting industry, such as aerospace departments. However, there is no need for multi-axis settings for each job.

If the cost is the first priority, the 3-axis machining may be the best choice. The 3-axis machine can be purchased cheaper and requires less skill operation, so the 3-axis machining is often cheaper than one of the more advanced processes. Even if the cost is still not worried, it is also very simple to shape, and sometimes it is best to leave a 3-axis machine.

When these standards are not applicable, they decided to become tricky. That’s why it is best to consult a CNC processing expert to understand what type of recommendation for the machine for a given work.

Prototype Expert 3ERP is one of China’s leading CNC machining company, in addition to more common 3 axes, one of the 4-axis and 5-axis selection numbers can also be provided. Its Haas CNC milling machine is some of the best available machines, and the company’s engineers have years of experience in this area. 31ERP also provides a variety of materials, including plastic such as ABS, TEFLON, and PEEK, as well as metal such as aluminum, steel and titanium.

Talk to 3RP Talk about your CNC machining needs to find a 4-axis or 5 axis CNC machining center that provides the best solution for your project.

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